the battle of princeton

On January 2, 1777, Washington didn't know entirely what to do. He convened a council of war with his officers. Washington had been alerted that the road to Princeton was undefended. He had a plan of marching deep into New Jersey and the consensus from the council was to keep going.

Most of Washington's army marched northeast. Residents loyal to Washington relayed information that the town of Princeton was open to attack on the east side of the town. As January 3 began, the Continentals were about two miles from Princeton. Washington ordered Brigadier General Hugh Mercer to march to the left and destroy a bridge on a road that led to Trenton. The bulk of the force, led by Major General John Sullivan's division, marched on Princeton. Washington's total forces were about 4,500 men.

The British forces were led by Lieutenant Colonel Charles Mawhood. He had about 1,200 men. Mawhood's mission was to keep Princeton secure for General Cornwallis. Princeton was key for the British communications route to New York City. 

Mawhood spotted Washington's front column and ordered his force back inside Princeton. Fighting ensued and Mawhood had Mercer's troops attacked by highly skilled British infantrymen. Mercer was overrun and mortally wounded. Washington pressed the engagement and entered the town. Sullivan did not risk a frontal attack and found a stalemate happen until troops, personally led by Washington, broke the British line.

 Both the Battles of Trenton and Princeton split the British Army in two and gave the people, loyal to independence, new hope and confidence that the war could be won.

Sources for this post: Battle of Princeton on
                                   10 Facts About the Battle of Princeton on


george washington at christmas

Washington did celebrate Christmas in a variety of ways throughout his life. Christmas was an important religious holiday in Washington's life. The holiday was usually extended to January 6 in his time to celebrate the twelve days of Christmas. There were many balls and parties. His experiences ranged from one extreme to the other.

In 1740, the Washington house burned down on Christmas Eve and the family celebrated Christmas in the detached kitchen. That couldn't have been much fun.

Washington's Kitchen near Fredricksburg

In 1758, on the twelve day of Christmas, January 6, George married Martha Dandridge Custis.

Junius Brutus Stearns depicts The Marriage of George Washington to Martha Custis

Christmas 1775 Martha traveled to Cambridge, Massachsetts and the Battle of Trenton was fought in 1776. In 1777, it was winter quarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. In 1779, it was winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey. Martha was with George that winter.

Ford Mansion at Morristown - Washington's headquarters

Christmas 1781, Washington was in Philadelphia. In 1783, Washington resigned his commission and went home to Mount Vernon. In 1789, Washington was president of the United States. In 1797 and 1798, George and Martha were at home. These were his last two Christmases.

"George Washington at Christmas" on was the source for this post.


what's the framework of the d of i?

The Declaration of Independence Established Natural Law as the Organizing Principle of the United States.



The new country would be committed  to a legal standard of freedom to be incorporated into the forms of government.